Kidney Failure (formerly ESKD)


Kidney Failure, formerly referred to as end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), is the last stage of chronic kidney disease, where the kidneys have stopped working well enough for survival without dialysis or a kidney transplant, i.e., kidney replacement therapy (KRT).

The ISN actively focuses on improving the understanding of kidney failure and its determinants, highlighting the necessary standards of care for kidney failure, and enhancing the ability to treat it in resource-constrained settings.

Over 3 million people globally currently receive KRT, predominantly dialysis. Estimates suggest that a similar number die annually because of lack of access to KRT, mainly in low and middle-income countries. The number of people receiving KRT is projected to rise to 5.4 million globally by 2030, with the greatest anticipated increase in emerging countries in Asia and Africa.

Discover more about our advocacy, research, and education efforts via the projects section.