Pathophysiology: current hypothesized causes

The causes of CKDu are not yet established, and current hypotheses are evaluating various possible etiologies, including:
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Annex S1: Annotated Bibliography, organized by candidate cause(s) of CKDu

Annex S2: Background and References for Ethical Considerations in CKDu Research

An integrative study of the genetic, social, and environmental determinants of chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka. Nanayakkara S, Senevirathna ST, Abeysekera T, Chandrajith R, Ratnatunga N, Gunarathne ED, Yan J, Hitomi T, Muso E, Komiya T, Harada KH, Liu W, Kobayashi H, Okuda H, Sawatari H, Matsuda F, Yamada R, Watanabe T, Miyataka H, Himeno S, Koizumi A. J Occup Health. 2014;56(1):28-38.

Risk factors for reduced glomerular filtration rate in a Nicaraguan community affected by Mesoamerican nephropathy. Raines N, González M, Wyatt C, Kurzrok M, Pool C, Lemma T, et al. MEDICC Rev. 2014;16:16–22